PostgreSQL – Database Script & Documentation Links, Client Apps & Utilities
PostgreSQL 13 – Client Applications & Utilities
• PostgreSQL 13 – Client Applications & Utilities
clusterdb — cluster a PostgreSQL database
createdb — create a new PostgreSQL database
createuser — define a new PostgreSQL user account
dropdb — remove a PostgreSQL database
dropuser — remove a PostgreSQL user account
ecpg — embedded SQL C preprocessor
pg_basebackup — take a base backup of a PostgreSQL cluster
pgbench — run a benchmark test on PostgreSQL
pg_config — retrieve information about the installed version of PostgreSQL
pg_dump — extract a PostgreSQL database into a script file or other archive file
pg_dumpall — extract a PostgreSQL database cluster into a script file
pg_isready — check the connection status of a PostgreSQL server
pg_receivewal — stream write-ahead logs from a PostgreSQL server
pg_recvlogical — control PostgreSQL logical decoding streams
pg_restore — restore a PostgreSQL database from an archive file created by pg_dump
pg_verifybackup — verify the integrity of a base backup of a PostgreSQL cluster
psql — PostgreSQL interactive terminal
reindexdb — reindex a PostgreSQL database
vacuumdb — garbage-collect and analyze a PostgreSQL database
• Easiest way to get started w PostgreSQL on macOS
• Full featured PostgreSQL installation packaged as a standard macOS app
PostgreSQL Database – Documentation Links
• PostgreSQL.org Database Documentation Hub – All Releases
• PostgreSQL 13 Documentation
• PostgreSQL Guide
• Enterprise DB PostgreSQL
PostgreSQL – Version History
|Version||Current minor||Supported||First Release||Final Release|
|13||13.3||Yes||September 24, 2020||November 13, 2025|
|12||12.7||Yes||October 3, 2019||November 14, 2024|
|11||11.12||Yes||October 18, 2018||November 9, 2023|
|10||10.17||Yes||October 5, 2017||November 10, 2022|
|9.6||9.6.22||Yes||September 29, 2016||November 11, 2021|
|9.5||9.5.25||No||January 7, 2016||February 11, 2021|
|9.4||9.4.26||No||December 18, 2014||February 13, 2020|
|9.3||9.3.25||No||September 9, 2013||November 8, 2018|
|9.2||9.2.24||No||September 10, 2012||November 9, 2017|
|9.1||9.1.24||No||September 12, 2011||October 27, 2016|
|9.0||9.0.23||No||September 20, 2010||October 8, 2015|
|8.4||8.4.22||No||July 1, 2009||July 24, 2014|
|8.3||8.3.23||No||February 4, 2008||February 7, 2013|
|8.2||8.2.23||No||December 5, 2006||December 5, 2011|
|8.1||8.1.23||No||November 8, 2005||November 8, 2010|
|8.0||8.0.26||No||January 19, 2005||October 1, 2010|
|7.4||7.4.30||No||November 17, 2003||October 1, 2010|
|7.3||7.3.21||No||November 27, 2002||November 27, 2007|
|7.2||7.2.8||No||February 4, 2002||February 4, 2007|
|7.1||7.1.3||No||April 13, 2001||April 13, 2006|
|7.0||7.0.3||No||May 8, 2000||May 8, 2005|
|6.5||6.5.3||No||June 9, 1999||June 9, 2004|
|6.4||6.4.2||No||October 30, 1998||October 30, 2003|
|6.3||6.3.2||No||March 1, 1998||March 1, 2003|
• The PostgreSQL Global Development Group releases a new major version containing new features about once a year.
• Each major version receives bug fixes and, if need be, security fixes that are released at least once every three months in what we call a “minor release.”
• Starting with PostgreSQL 10, a major version is indicated by increasing the first part of the version, e.g. 10 to 11.
• Before PostgreSQL 10, a major version was indicated by increasing either the first or second part of the version number, e.g. 9.5 to 9.6.
• Minor releases are numbered by increasing the last part of the version number.
• Beginning with PostgreSQL 10, this is the second part of the version number, e.g. 10.0 to 10.1; for older versions this is the third part of the version number, e.g. 9.5.3 to 9.5.4.
• We always recommend that all users run the latest available minor release for whatever major version is in use.
• Major versions usually change the internal format of system tables and data files. These changes are often complex, so we do not maintain backward compatibility of all stored data. A dump/reload of the database or use of the pg_upgrade module is required for major upgrades. We also recommend reading the upgrading section of the major version you are planning to upgrade to. You can upgrade from one major version to another without upgrading to intervening versions, but we recommend reading the release notes of all intervening major versions prior to doing so.
• Upgrading to a minor release does not normally require a dump and restore; you can stop the database server, install the updated binaries, and restart the server. For some releases, manual changes may be required to complete the upgrade, so always read the release notes before upgrading.
• While upgrading will always contain some level of risk, PostgreSQL minor releases fix only frequently-encountered bugs, security issues, and data corruption problems to reduce the risk associated with upgrading. For minor releases, the community considers not upgrading to be riskier than upgrading.